Dr. Paterson’s article shares the results of the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies threats survey conducted in late 2022. The survey generated almost 650 responses from Perry Center graduates who selected from 35 threats in the Americas. The results illuminate how leading Latin American and Caribbean scholars – particularly those who work in the security and defense field – see the conditions in the Americas and can help inform policy makers and scholars who follow events in the Americas.

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This publication analyzes the role of China and Russia as strategic competitors of the United States, and how they have been expanding their influence in the Americas through instruments of national power such as diplomacy, information, and the economy. They are now involved in new domains including emerging technologies, cyberspace and outer space. These strategic competitors have been supporting autocratic regimes and threatening democracy, prosperity and security in the region.
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This paper traces the evolution of Pan-Americanism and the inter-American system over periods marked by initial attempts inspired by the competing visions of James Monroe and Simón Bolívar (1823-1889); U.S. efforts to place Pan- Americanism into service to advance its political aim of preeminence in a peaceful and prosperous hemisphere (1889-1923); peak cooperation engendered by a shift in U.S. tone and tactics (1923-1945); the establishment of the OAS, fallout from U.S. actions during the Cold War, and the U.S. attempt to reset its relationship to the region (1945-1990); and optimism regarding the potential for regional integration giving way to disillusionment and disagreement over the best way to address democratic backsliding (1990-2023).
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Authors William Godnick and Iñaki Aguerreche assembled a thorough investigation and analysis on the occurrence of military interventions in the prison system in Latin America and the Caribbean. This insightful portrayal of the reality of prisons in many countries is a must-read for anyone interested in understanding this problem in the region.

This Occasional Paper is an english-language translation of Godnick’s and Aguerreche’s research which originally appeared in Fuerza pública en América Latina: Sus retos y buenas prácticas a la luz de la democracia y los derechos humanos (Public Forces in Latin America: Challenges and Good Practices in the Light of Democracy and Human Rights), published by the University of Guadalajara Press in 2022.

Perry Center Research Associate Chase Boone worked on the English translation.

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The outdated capabilities of the armed forces of many Latin American countries, as well as divided loyalties to their preferred security partners (think China and the United States), force them to be prepared for future scenarios. The author presents the strategic foresight initiatives that the United States and Australia have designed to address their own scenarios of future defense needs, and details the relevance and applicability they may have for different scenarios in other countries in the hemisphere. Dr. Godnick offers an analysis of these foresight tools as an instrument for assessing and improving the region's security and defense in the coming years.
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Dr. Boris Saavedra of the William J. Perry Center has published an important research paper with a timely and thorough analysis on how artificial intelligence (AI) and other technologies are transforming (and will continue to transform) our lives. It raises awareness of the challenges humanity faces with a technology that is outpacing regulation and what Latin American and Caribbean governments should expect in the future. The political and strategic disruptions AI may cause in the next few years will represent tough challenges for all countries in the Western Hemisphere. Dr. Saavedra’s analysis identifies the risks and the strategic actions required to mitigate and prepare for these future challenges.
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This paper focuses on vaccination practices among the Western Hemisphere's armed forces. The paper will look at three issues: (1) the institutional and normative sources of vaccine requirements and mandates; (2) the alternatives provided to service members who choose not to be vaccinated; and (3) incentives and penalties for non-compliance. The analysis is broken down by sub-regions of the Western Hemisphere: North America, the Caribbean (non-Spanish speaking), Central America and the Dominican Republic, and South America.
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Today, social networks are the cause of a kind of social disease. A significant group of people believe that social networks have a disproportionate influence on important social and political decisions. In this report, the author examines the elements of freedom of expression with a focus on censorship, hate speech, fake news, and other factors.
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The Caribbean faces a plethora of security challenges not the least of which are the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change problems, crime, and cyber security gaps. This collection of essays from participants in the Caribbean Defense and Security Course (2021) in August 2021 provides first-hand perspectives of 18 authors who help manage these challenges on behalf of their governments.
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