ImageYearTitleSummaryCategoriesAuthor(s)Topic(s)Country/RegionLanguage(s)Linkhf:tax:pub_yearhf:doc_categorieshf:doc_authorhf:tax:topichf:tax:country_regionhf:tax:language
From Peril to Partnership: US Security Assistance and the Bid to Stabilize Colombia and Mexico
[Click for Summary]

Plan Colombia and the Mérida Initiative are the two most significant US security assistance efforts in Latin America in the twenty-first century. At a time when US objectives in the Middle East and Central Asia were flagging, Colombia was a rare US foreign policy victory—a showcase for stabilization and security sector reform. Conversely, Mexico struggled to turn the tide on the country’s scourge of crime and violence, even with an influx of resources aimed at professionalizing the country’s security, defense, and judicial institutions.

As Washington reconsiders its approach to stabilizing crisis countries after a challenging withdrawal from Afghanistan, From Peril to Partnership’s comparative analysis of Colombia and Mexico offers lessons for scholars and policymakers alike, providing insights into the efficacy of US security assistance and the necessary conditions and stakeholders in partner nations that facilitate success. Crucially, private sector support, interparty consensus on security policies, and the centralization of the security bureaucracy underpinned Colombia’s success. The absence of these features in Mexico contributed to the country’s descent into chaos, culminating in the country’s highest-ever homicide rate by the end of the 2010s.

Drawing on extensive fieldwork, From Peril to Partnership evaluates to what extent security assistance programs helped improve the operational effectiveness and democratic accountability of Washington’s partners—Colombian and Mexican security forces. It answers why Plan Colombia achieved its objectives and why the Mérida Initiative underdelivered in Mexico. Most importantly, it goes beyond drug war theatrics and the “one-size-fits-all” approach to US-led stabilization—at once, restoring agency to institutions on the receiving end of US security assistance and helping chart a course toward more nuanced and effective US policy.

Angelo, Paul. From Peril to Partnership: US Security Assistance and the Bid to Stabilize Colombia and Mexico. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2024.

Only available commercially

Paul Angelo, , , , 2024external-pubspaul-angelodemocracy governance security-cooperationcolombia mexico united-statesenglish
Results of the Perry Center Threats Survey
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Dr. Paterson’s article shares the results of the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies threats survey conducted in late 2022. The survey generated almost 650 responses from Perry Center graduates who selected from 35 threats in the Americas. The results illuminate how leading Latin American and Caribbean scholars – particularly those who work in the security and defense field – see the conditions in the Americas and can help inform policy makers and scholars who follow events in the Americas.

Patrick Paterson, , , , , , , , 2024occasional-paperpatrick-patersonclimate-change external-actors health natural-disasters organized-crimecaribbean china latin-america russia united-statesenglish
The Almanac of Latin American History – Political and Security Events from 1800 to the Present
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Dr. Patrick Paterson, Associate Dean for Research and Publications at the WJPC, has published a fascinating almanac that compiles the most historically significant events in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1800-2020, containing vignettes of more than 700 events organized per month and specific calendar day. It focuses on major political and security incidents starting from the period of independence—including armed conflicts, famous battles, births and deaths of important figures, military coups, significant presidential elections, and independence dates.

Also included are detailed appendices addressing important economic, political, and social conditions, as well as an index with over 2,000 keywords.

Paterson, Patrick. The Almanac of Latin American History, Political and Security Events from 1800 to the Present, Rowman & Littlefield, 2024.

Only available commercially

Patrick Paterson, , , , , , , , , 2024external-pubspatrick-patersondemocracy geopolitics history international-accords-treaties politics securitycentral-america latin-america north-america south-america western-hemisphereenglish
A “Plan Ecuador” Is Needed: US Assistance Should Draw Lessons from the Past
[Click for Summary]

Latin America and the Caribbean are home to just 9 percent of the global population but account for a third of the world’s homicides. A lethal mix of drugs, readily available firearms, and unemployed youth is fueling a wave of violence that has taken on epidemic proportions. Ecuador is now ground zero for the region’s gang brutality. Whether Quito succeeds in containing the violence will depend as much on how it manages corruption and political instability as it does on the brute force called upon to suppress organized crime. The region’s downward spiral need not be a chronicle of a death foretold. In Ecuador, newfound national resolve and emerging offers of international cooperation can be an effective antidote to expanding gang violence. Indeed, the success of one of South America’s smallest countries in dismantling gangs and the corrupt institutions that protect them could be a promising start in turning the tide on Latin America’s new crime wave.

Paul Angelo, , , , , , 2024external-pubspaul-angelocorruption drug-trafficking gangs organized-crimecaribbean ecuador latin-america south-americaenglish
The Role of the Armed Forces in Combating Food Insecurity: A View from Latin America and the Caribbean
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Food insecurity is an urgent problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and the LAC region’s susceptibility to food insecurity is poised to worsen with the accelerating effects of climate change. Food insecurity is not in itself a phenomenon that necessitates a military response. Indeed, food insecurity is “not” a traditional security threat to territorial borders and national sovereignty. Rather, it should be seen as an amplifier of political, economic, social, and ecological strain and vulnerabilities that can be exploited by malign actors and, thus, contributing to heightened security concerns. In this view, investments in food security should be considered as necessary, proactive, and preventative security measures, in support of civilian government agencies and the private and nonprofit sectors. Through a limited role focused on humanitarian assistance, disaster response, and interagency and international collaboration, the United States can leverage the capacities and resources of the DOD to support its regional partners in combating food insecurity. Anything less would risk losing a strategic, humanitarian, and moral imperative.

Max Nathanson, Paul Angelo, , , 2024external-pubsmax-nathanson paul-angeloclimate-change food-security humanitarian-aidcaribbean latin-americaenglish
Cybersex Trafficking in South America: The Civil-Military Dimensions of Confronting Human Trafficking in the Digital Domain
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In the past decade, South American vulnerable populations have increasingly become victims of human trafficking via cybersex venues like live webcam sites such as Chaturbate and My Free Cams. Given the increasing prevalence of cybersex trafficking, the complicated nature of addressing the crime, and South American governments’ previous reliance on militaries to address other forms of trafficking (i.e., drug trafficking), this paper answers the following question: should the region’s militaries be called upon to confront the pervasive crime? Ms. Nelson’s paper defines what human trafficking, sex trafficking, and cybersex trafficking are, and their distinctions; it discusses the advent of cybersex trafficking and its contemporary proliferation, challenges in fighting the crime, and possible responses.

Zoe Nelson, , , , , 2024emerging-voiceszoe-nelsoncyber gangs human-trafficking violencecaribbean central-america latin-americaenglish
Countering China’s and Russia’s Influence on Emerging Technologies and Cyberspace in the Americas
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This publication analyzes the role of China and Russia as strategic competitors of the United States, and how they have been expanding their influence in the Americas through instruments of national power such as diplomacy, information, and the economy. They are now involved in new domains including emerging technologies, cyberspace and outer space. These strategic competitors have been supporting autocratic regimes and threatening democracy, prosperity and security in the region.

Celina Realuyo, , , , , 2023occasional-papercelina-realuyocyber strategic-competition technologychina latin-america russia united-statesspanish
The New World Order and Illicit Networks in the Post-Pandemic Era
[No Summary Available]

Celina Realuyo, , , 2023external-pubscelina-realuyocovid geopolitics transnational-organized-crime transnational-threatslatin-americaspanish
The Power of Digital Technology in 21st Century Geopolitics
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The evolution of global geopolitics has its center of gravity constituted by the emerging digital technology of exponential acceleration, which is based on the control or power of information and communications. When making a prospective emphasis to analyze the influence of emerging digital technology, it is observed that it is a bearer of the future through artificial intelligence technology, 5G communications and quantum computing.

Boris Saavedra, , 2023external-pubsboris-saavedracyber geopolitics technologylatin-americaspanish
Pan-Americanism and US Foreign Policy in the Era of Strategic Competition
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This paper traces the evolution of Pan-Americanism and the inter-American system over periods marked by initial attempts inspired by the competing visions of James Monroe and Simón Bolívar (1823-1889); U.S. efforts to place Pan- Americanism into service to advance its political aim of preeminence in a peaceful and prosperous hemisphere (1889-1923); peak cooperation engendered by a shift in U.S. tone and tactics (1923-1945); the establishment of the OAS, fallout from U.S. actions during the Cold War, and the U.S. attempt to reset its relationship to the region (1945-1990); and optimism regarding the potential for regional integration giving way to disillusionment and disagreement over the best way to address democratic backsliding (1990-2023).

Andrew Griffin, , , 2023occasional-paperandrew-griffininternational-organizations international-relations strategic-competitionlatin-america united-statesenglish
Living Our Learning: Transformative Impacts of Study Abroad and Field Studies for Students and Faculty
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This chapter explores how a commitment to experiential learning, especially via study abroad and academic field studies, can unlock new forms of knowledge and help to expand learning and research opportunities for faculty and students alike. Authors engage the relevant literature and share insights gleaned from their own experiences in diverse teaching contexts, which include extended semester- and year-long study abroad programs, shorter-term academic field studies, and emergency adaptations amid a global pandemic environment. In each case, they highlight how respectful teacher-student interplay and shared critical reflection on the desired outcomes serve to enrich mutual learning and scholarship in areas linked to international relations.

Hamilton, M., Almeida, K. “Living Our Learning: Transformative Impacts of Study Abroad and Field Studies for Students and Faculty.” In The Palgrave Handbook of Teaching and Research in Political Science, by Butcher, C., Bhasin, T., Gordon, E., Hallward, M.C. (eds.), 245-257. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2023.

Only Available Commercially

Katherine Almeida, Mark Hamilton2023external-pubskatherine-almeida mark-hamiltoneducation-trainingenglish
The Foreign Policy of Iván Duque’s Government
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Realuyo, Celina B. “The Foreign Policy of Iván Duque’s Government” in The Journal of Colombian Foreign Policy: Assessment of Iván Duque’s Foreign Policy and Horizons for the Petro Government. Edited by Andrés Molano-Rojas and Federmán Antonio Rodríguez Morales. 51-72. Bogotá: Editorial Universidad del Rosario, 2023.

Only available commercially

Celina Realuyo, 2023external-pubscelina-realuyointernational-relations policy-natl-intl-pubcolombiaspanish
Honoring Richard Cavazos: The First Hispanic Four-Star General
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The William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and the George Washington University Cisneros Hispanic Leadership Institute hosted a joint online event honoring Richard Cavazos, the first four-star Army General of Hispanic heritage, for whom the third largest US military base was recently renamed. Perry Center Professor Dr. Arturo Sotomayor moderated a conversation with US Navy Admiral (ret.) Michelle Howard, chairwoman of the Renaming Commission and the first African-American woman to command a US Navy ship.

WJPC, 2023video-otherwjpcdiversity historyunited-statesenglish
Strategic Historical Context of the 1987 Venezuela-Colombia Caldas Corvette Crisis
[No Summary Available]

Jesús Aveledo-Urdaneta, , , , , 2023video-webinarjesus-aveledo-urdanetaborders emergencies-crisis history maritime-issues natural-resourcescolombia venezuelaspanish
Soldiers and Prisons: Reflections on Military Interventions in the Latin American and Caribbean Prison System
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Authors William Godnick and Iñaki Aguerreche assembled a thorough investigation and analysis on the occurrence of military interventions in the prison system in Latin America and the Caribbean. This insightful portrayal of the reality of prisons in many countries is a must-read for anyone interested in understanding this problem in the region.

This Occasional Paper is an english-language translation of Godnick’s and Aguerreche’s research which originally appeared in Fuerza pública en América Latina: Sus retos y buenas prácticas a la luz de la democracia y los derechos humanos (Public Forces in Latin America: Challenges and Good Practices in the Light of Democracy and Human Rights), published by the University of Guadalajara Press in 2022.

Perry Center Research Associate Chase Boone worked on the English translation.

Iñaki Aguerreche, William Godnick, , , 2023occasional-paperinaki-aguerreche william-godnickcrime military police-military-relationshipcaribbean latin-americaenglish
The Role of the Latin American Lithium Triangle in Critical Mineral Availability
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Sydney’s paper describes the current state of the international lithium market and of lithium mining projects in Argentina, Chile, and Bolivia. It also explores the environmental consequences of this activity and provides a forecast of lithium availability in the near future. This paper offers a clear perspective of the status of the supply and demand of this coveted mineral and what should be done to meet the sustainable development goals for lithium production.

Sydney Knapp, , , , , 2023regional-insightssydney-knappenergy environment natural-resourcesargentina bolivia chile united-statesenglish
US and Australian Defense and National Security Foresight Tools and their Applicability to the Latin American Context
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The outdated capabilities of the armed forces of many Latin American countries, as well as divided loyalties to their preferred security partners (think China and the United States), force them to be prepared for future scenarios. The author presents the strategic foresight initiatives that the United States and Australia have designed to address their own scenarios of future defense needs, and details the relevance and applicability they may have for different scenarios in other countries in the hemisphere. Dr. Godnick offers an analysis of these foresight tools as an instrument for assessing and improving the region’s security and defense in the coming years.

William Godnick, , , 2023occasional-paperwilliam-godnicksecurity security-cooperationaustralia latin-america united-statesspanish
The Concept of Micro-Sovereignty and its Relevance to State Sovereignty
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Micro-sovereignties have become increasingly important for States seeking to strengthen their territorial control. Micro-sovereignties can have a disproportionate impact in relation to their size and the number of inhabitants that support them. This article offers a definition of the concept of micro-sovereignties and provides criteria for identifying and qualitatively assessing them. It is shown that, in addition to being a challenge to the sovereignty of nations, they also represent an opportunity, especially in democratic regimes, to strengthen sovereignty through networks of pow-er that cooperate with micro-sovereignties, considering their strengths in terms of moral authority and links with the population.

David Spencer, , , 2023external-pubsdavid-spencerborders governance politics sovereigntyspanish
Maritime Security in the South Atlantic: Perspectives from South America
[No Summary Available]

Ariel González Levaggi, Marcelo Valença, 2023video-webinarariel-gonzalez-levaggi marcelo-valencamaritime-issues securitysouth-americaspanish
Converging Digital Technology Outlook for the Next Decade (2023-2033) and its Global and Regional Impact
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Dr. Boris Saavedra of the William J. Perry Center has published an important research paper with a timely and thorough analysis on how artificial intelligence (AI) and other technologies are transforming (and will continue to transform) our lives. It raises awareness of the challenges humanity faces with a technology that is outpacing regulation and what Latin American and Caribbean governments should expect in the future. The political and strategic disruptions AI may cause in the next few years will represent tough challenges for all countries in the Western Hemisphere. Dr. Saavedra’s analysis identifies the risks and the strategic actions required to mitigate and prepare for these future challenges.

Boris Saavedra, , , 2023occasional-paperboris-saavedracritical-infrastructure cyber transnational-organized-crimelatin-america western-hemispherespanish
Academic Memories 2022
[Click for Summary]

A compiled list of publications authored in 2022 by WJPC alumni

WJPC Alumni Committee2023other-pubswjpc-alumni-committeespanish
Countering Disinformation in the Americas
[No Summary Available]

John Feeley, , 2023video-webinarjohn-feeleycyber freedom-of-speech technologyenglish
Countering Disinformation in the Americas
[No Summary Available]

John Feeley, , 2023video-webinarjohn-feeleycyber freedom-of-speech technologyspanish
The Peruvian Armed Forces vs Environmental Crimes: An Analysis
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Latin American armed forces have a wide array of missions, from defense and security to humanitarian asistance/disaster relief (HA/DR), to United Nations peacekeeping operations (PKOs). However, there is one mission that has gained importance in recent years: environmental protection. The heightened risks of climate change have made governments in the Americas more aware of environmental protection and have assigned many Latin American militaries to the mission. This article examines the activities of the Peruvian armed forces to protect the environment of the Andean and Amazonian nation.

Wilder Alejandro Sánchez, , , , 2022regional-insightswilder-alejandro-sanchezarmed-forces environment military natural-resourceslatin-america peruenglish
An Unseen Force: Indigenous Soldiers in the Ecuadorian Armed Forces
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This article focuses on the role of indigenous personnel in the Ecuadorian armed forces from a sociological perspective. Indigenous representatives of the armed forces is a unique feature of the Ecuadorian Army and perhaps a model for other Latin American and Caribbean nations who can benefit from the special skills and perspectives these individuals bring to the security environment, particularly in remote areas of Latin American countries that have a small presence of government representatives.

Nicole Benalcázar-Pavlik, , 2022regional-insightsnicole-benalcazar-pavlikindigenous-issues militaryecuador latin-americaenglish
The Guyana-Venezuela Waiting Game
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The article addresses the tense border dispute between Venezuela and Guyana that has been submitted to the International Court of Justice for adjudication. Aside from the high stakes to be awarded to the recipient of an ICJ decision, the article also examines the process the two countries have accepted to resolve their dispute. It is an example of how LA/C nations defer to international conflict resolution institutions to resolve differences rather than resorting to armed force.

Ivelaw Lloyd Griffith, , , 2022regional-insightsivelaw-lloyd-griffithborders conflict-resolution geopoliticsguyana venezuelaenglish
Climate Migration and Security in the Western Hemisphere
[No Summary Available]

Robert Muggah, , , , 2022video-webinarrobert-muggahborders climate-change migration natural-disasters securitywestern-hemispherespanish
Climate Migration and Security in the Western Hemisphere
[No Summary Available]

https://vimeo.com/manage/videos/917858065, Robert Muggah, , , , 2022video-webinarhttps-vimeo-com-manage-videos-917858065 robert-muggahborders climate-change migration natural-disasters securitywestern-hemisphereenglish
Climate Change and Regional Instability in Central America
[Click for Summary]

With more than 1.7 million encounters reported by US Customs and Border Protection—the highest tally in two decades—2021 was an exceptional year for irregular migration to the US southern border. Although that number includes citizens from at least 121 countries, some 43 percent of those apprehended by US authorities hailed from Central America.

Barring massive shifts in policy and human behavior around the world, environmental degradation due to climate change will fuel volatility in Central America for decades to come, with disruptive spillover effects for neighboring Mexico and the United States. Halting the flow of people northward from Central America is neither feasible nor desirable, especially given growing labor demands in the United States and Mexico. But ensuring migration remains an option, not a necessity, requires long-range planning and international cooperation to alleviate the impending climate fallout.

Paul Angelo, 2022paul-angeloclimate-change migration
Perry Center Strengthens Regional Collaboration among Digital Domain Defenders
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This article provides highlights of the Perry Center’s 2022 cyber policy course, “Cybersecurity Policy in the Americas: Challenges for Policy-Strategic Analysis,” led by Dr. Boris Saavedra.

Darla Jordan, , 2022external-pubsdarla-jordancyberwestern-hemisphereenglish portuguese spanish
Caribbean Maritime Security Strategy
[Click for Summary]

A moderated discussion with guest speaker Lt. Col. Michael Jones, Executive Director of CARICOM IMPACS, exploring the development of the Caribbean Maritime Security Strategy and its implications in the region.

Michael Jones2022video-webinarmichael-jonesmaritime-issuescaribbeanenglish
Vaccination Against COVID-19 Among the Armed Forces of the Western Hemisphere
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This paper focuses on vaccination practices among the Western Hemisphere’s armed forces. The paper will look at three issues: (1) the institutional and normative sources of vaccine requirements and mandates; (2) the alternatives provided to service members who choose not to be vaccinated; and (3) incentives and penalties for non-compliance. The analysis is broken down by sub-regions of the Western Hemisphere: North America, the Caribbean (non-Spanish speaking), Central America and the Dominican Republic, and South America.

William Godnick, , , , , , 2022occasional-paperwilliam-godnickarmed-forces covid healthcanada caribbean central-america latin-america united-statesenglish
Freedom of Expression in Cyberspace: Hate Speech, Religion and Politics, Fake News and Post Truth
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Today, social networks are the cause of a kind of social disease. A significant group of people believe that social networks have a disproportionate influence on important social and political decisions. In this report, the author examines the elements of freedom of expression with a focus on censorship, hate speech, fake news, and other factors.

Boris Saavedra, 2022occasional-paperboris-saavedracyber freedom-of-speechlatin-americaspanish
The 21st Century Latin American Military: Climate Change and the Future of HA/DR Operations
[Click for Summary]

In Latin America, it is expected that climate change will exacerbate extreme weather events such as hurricanes, droughts, and wildfires, a consequence of extremely dry conditions. The armed forces of Latin America have a long history of participating in Humanitarian Assistance/ Disaster Relief (HA/DR) operations when natural disasters events occur. To be prepared for the next disaster, regional armed forces constantly train via local and multinational exercises, while defense budgets are aimed at acquiring HA/DR equipment.

Wilder Alejandro Sánchez, , , , , 2022regional-insightswilder-alejandro-sanchezclimate-change humanitarian-aid natural-disasterscaribbean central-america latin-america south-americaenglish
Systems Analysis of the Salvadoran Gangs
[Click for Summary]

A moderated discussion with two of the authors of the recently published English-language book Adversarial System Analysis of the Salvadoran Gangs which examines the organizational dynamics and evolution of the Salvadoran gangs.

David Spencer, Herard von Santos2022video-webinardavid-spencer herard-von-santosgangsel-salvadorenglish
Systems Analysis of the Salvadoran Gangs
[Click for Summary]

A moderated discussion with two of the authors of the recently published English-language book Adversarial System Analysis of the Salvadoran Gangs which examines the organizational dynamics and evolution of the Salvadoran gangs.

David Spencer, Herard von Santos2022video-webinardavid-spencer herard-von-santosgangsel-salvadorspanish
Illicit Networks and the New World Order Post-Pandemic
[Click for Summary]

The COVID-19 pandemic has upended the post-World War II political, economic, social and international order with many questioning whether our current democratic and economic institutions are suitable for and capable of recovering from this profound health, economic and governance crisis. While democracies and open economies were hard hit by the pandemic, illicit networks including transnational criminal groups, terrorist organizations and their facilitators have proven more resilient, expanding their activities and influence in the Americas. This article will examine the impact COVID-19 has had on the health, economy, democracy, security of the region and on illicit networks. The article will conclude with recommendations on how nations incorporate strategic foresight and anticipatory governance to safeguard their sovereignty and counter to the growing threats from corruption and illicit networks in the new world order.

Celina Realuyo, , , 2022external-pubscelina-realuyocorruption covid transnational-organized-crime transnational-threatslatin-americaenglish
Fog of Warfare: Broadening US Military Use-of-Force Training for Security Cooperation
[No Summary Available]

Patrick Paterson, , 2022external-pubspatrick-patersonhuman-rights rule-of-law security-cooperationunited-statesenglish
COVID, Crime, and Climate Change in the Caribbean
[Click for Summary]

The Caribbean faces a plethora of security challenges not the least of which are the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change problems, crime, and cyber security gaps. This collection of essays from participants in the Caribbean Defense and Security Course (2021) in August 2021 provides first-hand perspectives of 18 authors who help manage these challenges on behalf of their governments.

William Godnick, , , , , , , , , 2022occasional-paperwilliam-godnickclimate-change covid crime cyberbahamas barbados caribbean guyana jamaica st-vincent-and-grenadines trinidad-tobagoenglish
The Colombia Coca Bloom, the Mexican Heroin Surge, and the Fentanyl Crisis
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Revenue from illegal drugs is the principal source of income for transnational organized crime groups in the Americas. Cocaine is the biggest revenue generator. Heroin and fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, have recently surged in Mexico. This report examines the surge in cocaine, heroin, and fentanyl from the Americas. Data are draw from the US Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP)’s National Drug Control Strategy Data Supplement from 2020 and from the ONDCP Drug Dashboard.

David Chang, Patrick Paterson, , 2022regional-insightsdavid-chang patrick-patersondrug-traffickingcolombia latin-america mexicoenglish
Special Operations as a Strategic Impact Capability in Uruguay’s Armed Forces
[Click for Summary]

A contemporary analysis of security and defense issues by WJPC alumni (three articles in total)

Luis F. Suárez2022other-pubsluis-f-suarezdefense-governanceuruguayspanish
Towards a Multidimensional National Defense – The Uruguayan Case: Evolution, Ambiguity or Demagogy?
[Click for Summary]

A contemporary analysis of security and defense issues by WJPC alumni (three articles in total)

Gustavo Papuchi Walter, 2022other-pubsgustavo-papuchi-walterdefense-governance multidimensional-securityuruguayspanish
Reflections on Rights and Political Training of the Military
[Click for Summary]

A contemporary analysis of security and defense issues by WJPC alumni (three articles in total)

Hugo Bruera, , 2022other-pubshugo-brueracivil-military-relationship politicsargentina western-hemispherespanish
Reflections on Security and Defense – Preface and Introduction
[Click for Summary]

A contemporary analysis of security and defense issues by WJPC alumni (three articles in total)

Carolina Sancho Hirane, Yadira Gálvez Salvador, , , , 2022other-pubscarolina-sancho-hirane yadira-galvez-salvadorcivil-military-relationship defense-governance politicsargentina uruguay western-hemispherespanish
Academic Memories 2021
[Click for Summary]

A compiled list of publications authored in 2021 by WJPC alumni

Carolina Sancho Hirane, WJPC Alumni Committee, Yadira Gálvez Salvador2022other-pubscarolina-sancho-hirane wjpc-alumni-committee yadira-galvez-salvadorspanish
Cyberspace in Latin America: Concerns, Challenges, and Opportunities
[Click for Summary]

The invasion of Ukraine by Russia began on February 24 and has generated a conflict that many in the world thought was a thing of the past. It started more than ten years ago in the cyberespace. It could be a clear message to our region that today’s criminal activities in our cyberspace could develop a conflict in physical domains. This article analyzes the aspects that could generate concern, challenges and opportunities for cybersecurity in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Boris Saavedra, 2022external-pubsboris-saavedracybercaribbean latin-americaspanish
How Cryptocurrencies Are Empowering Transnational Criminal Organizations and Countries in Latin America
[Click for Summary]

During the COVID-19 pandemic, life as we knew it changed dramatically as activities, both licit and illicit, moved to the virtual world. We witnessed shopping, college classes, diplomatic meetings, financial transactions, and organized crime activities transition online almost overnight. The pandemic has empowered transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) to establish new virtual markets for their drug, human, arms, and contraband trafficking and money laundering with cryptocurrencies.

Celina Realuyo, , , , , , , , 2022external-pubscelina-realuyocryptocurrency money-laundering transnational-organized-crimecolombia el-salvador latin-america mexico venezuelaenglish portuguese spanish
4th Annual Security Challenges in Latin America Forum
[Click for Summary]

The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) and the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies is hosting its fourth annual forum on the security challenges in Latin America. This year?s forum aims to address the thematic question, “Security, Defense, and Gender: What are the Impacts?”

Alexandre Rebello de Faria, Alice Driver, Carolina Sampó, Cori Fleser, Duilia Mora Turner, Guadalupe Correa Cabrera, Leora Falk, María Paula Romo, Michael Bejos, , , , , 2022video-hemispheric-forumalexandre-rebello-de-faria alice-driver carolina-sampo cori-fleser duilia-mora-turner guadalupe-correa-cabrera leora-falk maria-paula-romo michael-bejoseducation-training gender human-rights violencecentral-america south-america western-hemisphereenglish
Civil-Military Relations: Guidelines in Politically Charged Societies
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Current events warrant a review of US civil-military relations doctrine. This special commentary examines eight principles of military subordination to elected civilian officials and addresses the fundamental question at the heart of civil-military relations theory and practice, namely, what options, if any, does the military professional have when civilian leadership disregards military advice? Examples drawn from US history can provide an important framework for understanding the complex interrelational dynamics at play.

Patrick Paterson, 2022external-pubspatrick-patersoncivil-police-relationship public-securityunited-statesenglish
Security and Defense Challenges in Latin America
[Click for Summary]

The University of Armed Forces of Ecuador (ESPE) and the Perry Center join together for a virtual discussion on security and defense challenges in Latin America.

Celina Realuyo, Lester Gabrera, Mauro Argotti, William Godnick, 2022video-webinarcelina-realuyo lester-gabrera mauro-argotti william-godnickecuador latin-americaspanish
Armed Forces and Human Rights: Other Situations of Violence and Additional Considerations
[No Summary Available]

William Godnick, , 2022external-pubswilliam-godnickhuman-rights public-security violencelatin-americaenglish
The Future of the Coldest, Windiest, Driest, Highest Place on Earth: The Antarctic Treaty
[No Summary Available]

Fabiana Perera2022external-pubsfabiana-pererainternational-accords-treatiesarctic-antarcticenglish
Adversarial System Analysis of the Salvadoran Gangs
[No Summary Available]

David Spencer, Herard von Santos, Juan Carlos Morales, , , 2022other-pubsdavid-spencer herard-von-santos juan-carlos-moralesarmed-groups transnational-organized-crime violencecentral-america el-salvadorenglish
Armed Forces of the English-Speaking Caribbean: A Conversation with Dr. Sanjay Badri-Maharaj
[Click for Summary]

A moderated presentation of the recently published book Armed Forces of the English-Speaking Caribbean: The Bahamas, Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago which examines the evolution, current status and future of the armed forces in the Caribbean.

Sanjay Badri-Maharaj, , , , , 2022video-webinarsanjay-badri-maharajarmed-forcesbahamas barbados caribbean guyana jamaica trinidad-tobagospanish
Armed Forces of the English-Speaking Caribbean: A Conversation with Dr. Sanjay Badri-Maharaj
[Click for Summary]

A moderated presentation of the recently published book Armed Forces of the English-Speaking Caribbean: The Bahamas, Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago which examines the evolution, current status and future of the armed forces in the Caribbean.

Sanjay Badri-Maharaj, , , , , 2022video-webinarsanjay-badri-maharajarmed-forcesbahamas barbados caribbean guyana jamaica trinidad-tobagoenglish
Governance of Defense and Security Policy: Defense Policy of Ecuador, 2017-2021
[No Summary Available]

Oswaldo Jarrín Román, , , , , , 2022occasional-paperoswaldo-jarrin-romandefense-governance drug-trafficking illegal-fishing transnational-threatscolombia ecuador galapagos south-americaspanish
Alumni Spotlights 2021 (June-December)
[Click for Summary]

The Alumni Spotlights magazine is an annual publication which highlights the experiences and achievements of alumni of the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and demonstrates the exceptional impact its alumni are making around the world. Individual spotlights are also featured on our web site and social media pages.

WJPC Alumni Office, 2021alumni-outreachwjpc-alumni-officeenglish spanish
Prologue
[Click for Summary]

Bitencourt, Luis. “Prologue” in Snakes and Earthquakes: Notes on Security and Defense in the 21st Century, by Mariano Bartolome. Buenos Aires: Editorial 1884, 2021.

Only available commercially

Luis Bitencourt, 2021external-pubsluis-bitencourtcivil-military-relationship defense-governancelatin-americaspanish
Brazil: The Evolution of Civil-Military Relations and Security
[Click for Summary]

On November 15, 1889, under the leadership of Army Marshall Deodoro da Fonseca, a group of Army military officers staged a coup d’état, deposed Emperor Pedro II, and turned Brazil into a republic. From that moment on, throughout the entire twentieth century, the military would become somewhat of a shadow presence in Brazil’s politics. Because Brazilian military leaders were not linked to any of the forces contending for control of Brazilian politics – such as the coffee producers, the cattle creators, or traditional political clans – they influenced the political processes either indirectly as a self-defined poder moderador in the political arena or, directly, as a self-defined “guardian of democracy.” In the end, the national security establishment was competent to accomplish all its goals.

Bitencourt, Luis. “Brazil: The Evolution of Civil-Military Relations and Security” in Democracy and Security in Latin America: State Capacity and Governance under Stress, edited by Gabriel Marcella, Orlando J. Perez, and Brian Fonseca. Oxfordshire: Routledge, 2021.

Only available commercially

Luis Bitencourt, , , 2021external-pubsluis-bitencourtcivil-military-relationship democracy governance militarybrazilenglish
America’s Longtime Friend, Colombia, Needs US Help
[Click for Summary]

Colombia is one of the US’ closest partners in Latin America, sharing democratic values, free-market capitalism, and mutual security interests. The US is Colombia’s largest trade and investment partner, thanks to the US–Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement. Through “Plan Colombia,” the US and Colombia have built a strong counterterrorism and counter-narcotics partnership to combat the cocaine trade and armed groups like FARC. Colombia has been generous in welcoming over 1.8 million Venezuelans fleeing the Maduro regime and providing assistance to its Latin American neighbors. As Colombia faces increased instability, the US must stand by its trusted ally and its democratically elected government under Iván Duque to ensure continued security and prosperity in Colombia and across the region.

Celina Realuyo, James Roberts, Joseph Humire, Mateo Haydar, , , , , , 2021external-pubscelina-realuyo james-roberts joseph-humire mateo-haydararmed-groups external-actors organized-crime transnational-organized-crimecolombia latin-america united-states venezuelaenglish
US-Mexican Security Cooperation Faces the Future
[No Summary Available]

Celina Realuyo, , , , , , 2021external-pubscelina-realuyodrug-trafficking migration security-cooperation transnational-organized-crimecentral-america mexico north-america united-statesenglish
The Power of Digital Technology in 21st Century Geopolitics
[Click for Summary]

The Academia Nacional de Estudios Políticos y Estratégicos (National Academy of Political and Strategic Studies – ANEPE) and the Perry Center join together to discuss the rapidly changing relationship between digital technology and geopolitics.

Boris Saavedra, Marcelo Suykion Wong Cea, , 2021video-webinarboris-saavedra marcelo-suykion-wong-ceacyber geopolitics technologyspanish
The Caribbean Threat Environment
[No Summary Available]

Anthony Clayton, Tres-Ann Kremer2021video-otheranthony-clayton tres-ann-kremerenglish
A Conversation with Dr. Ivelaw Lloyd Griffith
[Click for Summary]

Dr. Ivelaw Griffith returns to the 2021 Webinar Series to discuss “Conventional and Health Geopolitics in the Contemporary Caribbean” as addressed in his recent publication with the Perry Center. Dr. Griffith is a long-standing expert on Caribbean security, drugs, and crime and a recipient of the 2015 Dr. William J. Perry Award for Excellence in Security and Defense Education.

Ivelaw Lloyd Griffith, 2021video-webinarivelaw-lloyd-griffithgeopolitics healthcaribbeanenglish
The Armed Forces and Disaster Risk Management in Latin America and the Caribbean
[Click for Summary]

The Peruvian Army Center for Strategic Studies (CEEEP), The Graduate School for Superior Strategic Studies (EGAEE) of the Dominican Republic and the Perry Center join together for reflection and debate to address the role of the armed forces in Disaster Risk Management in Latin America and the Caribbean.

Carlos Manuel Paulino Cárdenas, Jorge Chávez Cresta, , , , 2021video-webinarcarlos-manuel-paulino-cardenas jorge-chavez-crestaarmed-forces climate-change emergencies-crisis natural-disasterscaribbean latin-americaspanish
Homeland Defense is a Global Endeavor: A Conversation with General Glen D. VanHerck
[No Summary Available]

Glen D. VanHerck2021video-otherglen-d-vanherckspanish
Homeland Defense is a Global Endeavor: A Conversation with General Glen D. VanHerck
[No Summary Available]

Glen D. VanHerck2021video-otherglen-d-vanherckenglish
A Network Response to the Threat of Drug Trafficking in Chile
[No Summary Available]

Pilar Lizana Toresano2021regional-insightspilar-lizana-toresanodrug-traffickingchilespanish
Hezbollah in Latin America: A Potential Grey Zone Player in Great Power Competition
[No Summary Available]

Demetrios Marinides, 2021occasional-paperdemetrios-marinidesgreat-power-competition non-state-actorslatin-americaenglish
Conventional and Health Geopolitics in the Contemporary Caribbean
[No Summary Available]

Ivelaw Lloyd Griffith, 2021occasional-paperivelaw-lloyd-griffithgeopolitics healthcaribbeanenglish
Chinese Confucius Institutes in Latin America: Tools of Soft Power
[No Summary Available]

Jake Gilstrap, , , , 2021occasional-paperjake-gilstrapcovid soft-powercentral-america china latin-america south-americaenglish
Dialogue on Gender Integration and Maritime Security – Panel 3: Challenges to WPS – Private Sector Perspective
[No Summary Available]

, , , , 2021video-othergender maritime-issues peace wpscaribbean western-hemisphereenglish
Dialogue on Gender Integration and Maritime Security – Panel 2: Protection in Maritime Security
[No Summary Available]

, , , , 2021video-othergender maritime-issues peace wpscaribbean western-hemisphereenglish
Dialogue on Gender Integration and Maritime Security – Panel 1: Participation in Maritime Security
[No Summary Available]

, , , , 2021video-othergender maritime-issues peace wpscaribbean western-hemisphereenglish
Dialogue on Gender Integration and Maritime Security – Event Summary
[No Summary Available]

, , , , 2021video-othergender maritime-issues peace wpscaribbean western-hemisphereenglish
China’s Growing Influence in Latin America and the Caribbean
[No Summary Available]

R. Evan Ellis, , , , 2021video-webinarr-evan-ellisbudget-economy commerce-trade geopoliticscaribbean china latin-americaspanish
China’s Growing Influence in Latin America and the Caribbean
[No Summary Available]

R. Evan Ellis, , , , 2021video-webinarr-evan-ellisbudget-economy commerce-trade geopoliticscaribbean china latin-americaenglish
Regulations in Cyberspace in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges and Opportunities
[Click for Summary]

Cyberspace vulnerabilities constitute a major challenge to decision-makers in Latin America and the Caribbean. There is a growing concern in the region on the lack of an effective legal framework to control this limitless environment. All legal systems used in the region present their own challenges, but within each one is a lack of capacity to efficiently regulate cyberspace. Additionally, while the public sector focuses on the common good and the private sector focuses on profit, both must be united under a common regulatory framework that facilitates the objectives of security for society. This chapter addresses the current status of cyberspace regulations in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and the challenges faced in implementing them.

Saavedra, Boris, and Ema Corcodilos. “Regulations in Cyberspace in Latin America and the Caribbean: Challenges and Opportunities.” in Cybersecurity and Legal-Regulatory Aspects, Gabi Siboni, and Limor Ezioni (eds.), 65-88. Singapore. World Scientific Publishing Company, 2021.

Only available commercially

Boris Saavedra, Emma Corcodilos, 2021external-pubsboris-saavedra emma-corcodiloscybercaribbean latin-americaenglish
A Conversation with Mr. Daniel P. Erikson
[No Summary Available]

Daniel P. Erikson2021video-otherdaniel-p-eriksonspanish
A Conversation with Mr. Daniel P. Erikson
[No Summary Available]

Daniel P. Erikson2021video-otherdaniel-p-eriksonenglish
Non-State Armed Groups in the Caribbean
[No Summary Available]

Jason Francis, Michael Bejos, , 2021video-webinarjason-francis michael-bejosarmed-groups gangs non-state-actorscaribbeanenglish
The Creation of a TIAR 21 to Combat Illegal Fishing in Latin America
[No Summary Available]

Wilder Alejandro Sánchez, 2021regional-insightswilder-alejandro-sanchezillegal-fishing illicit-economieslatin-americaspanish
Gender Policies and the Integration of Women in the Armed Forces
[Click for Summary]

The Peruvian Army Center for Strategic Studies (CEEEP) and the Perry Center join together for an open discussion on Women, Peace and Security in the Americas.

Celina Realuyo, Nuria Esparch Fernández, , 2021video-webinarcelina-realuyo nuria-esparch-fernandezarmed-forces gender reforms-modernizationspanish
Understanding Mexico’s Security Conundrum
[Click for Summary]

A moderated presentation of the recently published English-language book Understanding Mexico?s Security Conundrum on Mexico?s institutional approach to national security.

Augustín Maciel-Padilla, , 2021video-webinaraugustin-maciel-padillacivil-military-relationship civil-police-relationship public-securitymexicospanish
Transnational Organized Crime: Nefarious Networks in the 3rd Decade of the 21st Century
[Click for Summary]

The Academia Nacional de Estudios Políticos y Estratégicos (National Academy of Political and Strategic Studies – ANEPE) and the Perry Center join together for reflection and debate to address the complex phenomenon of organized crime and its transnationalization, analyzing the primary drivers for illicit activity and its financing from both a regional and national perspective.

Celina Realuyo, Patricio Navarro Poblete, , , , 2021video-webinarcelina-realuyo patricio-navarro-pobleteillicit-economies money-laundering transnational-organized-crimechile latin-america western-hemispherespanish
Alumni Spotlights 2021 (January-May)
[Click for Summary]

The Alumni Spotlights magazine is an annual publication which highlights the experiences and achievements of alumni of the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and demonstrates the exceptional impact its alumni are making around the world. Individual spotlights are also featured on our web site and social media pages.

WJPC Alumni Office, 2021alumni-outreachwjpc-alumni-officeenglish spanish
Humanitarian and Criminal Law in Contemporary Conflicts
[No Summary Available]

Patrick Paterson, , , 2021video-webinarpatrick-patersonarmed-conflict human-rights international-humanitarian-law rule-of-lawspanish
The Blurred Battlefield
[No Summary Available]

Patrick Paterson, , , 2021video-webinarpatrick-patersonarmed-conflict human-rights international-humanitarian-law rule-of-lawenglish
Russia and Latin America: Flexible, Pragmatic, and Close
[No Summary Available]

Fabiana Perera, , , 2021external-pubsfabiana-pereraalliances geopolitics great-power-competitionlatin-america russiaenglish
Critical Infrastructure: A Cybersecurity Framework
[Click for Summary]

Critical infrastructure is essential to the efficient functioning of a country. As more systems are connected to the Internet, the threat of damaging cyber-attacks increases. For small island states, air and maritime transport naturally are critical tools for the development and operation of the country. How must Caribbean nations evolve to enhance infrastructure capacity and protect airports and ports while maintaining a proper balance between security and user privacy?

Marc Asturias, , 2021video-webinarmarc-asturiascritical-infrastructure cyber technologycaribbeanenglish
The Internet of Things (IoT)
[Click for Summary]

The Pew Research Center defines the Internet of Things (IoT) as “a global immersive, invisible, ambient networked computing environment built through the continued proliferation of smart sensors, cameras, software, databases, and massive data centers in a world-spanning information fabric.” In the age of converging accelerated technology and 5G communication systems, what are the strategic and policy level challenges and opportunities for Latin America and the Caribbean?

Harry Wingo, , 2021video-webinarharry-wingocyber technologycaribbean latin-americaenglish
Seminar on “Cooperation to Confront Transnational Challenges to the Defense and Security of Central America” (23-24 February, 2021)
[No Summary Available]

Boris Saavedra, Celina Realuyo, Daniel Chang, William Godnick, , , , , 2021proceedings-2boris-saavedra celina-realuyo daniel-chang william-godnickcovid transnational-threatscentral-america el-salvador guatemala hondurasenglish spanish
Real and Imaginary Issues: Governance of the Arctic and Antarctic
[No Summary Available]

Andrés Borjas, Fabiana Perera, , 2021occasional-paperandres-borjas fabiana-pererageopolitics governance international-accords-treatiesarctic-antarcticenglish
Strengthening Partnerships in a Region of Promise
[No Summary Available]

Craig S. Faller2021video-othercraig-s-fallerenglish
The Blurred Battlefield: The Perplexing Conflation of Humanitarian and Criminal Law in Contemporary Conflicts
[Click for Summary]

This monograph is a serious and well-researched investigation into crucial factors of contemporary warfare. Readers will learn lessons on the distinctions between the Law of Armed Conflict and criminal law, particularly on important issues like lethal force, escalation of force tactics, and security detention. Professor Paterson makes a strong argument that the stated policy of respect and promotion of human rights (HR) – that has long been a guiding principle of the US military – does not translate into specific and mandatory directives at the tactical and operational levels. Indeed, he asserts that at those levels there is no formal attention to HR, only ad hoc efforts by operational units that don’t receive guiding policy. This monograph will be essential reading for policymakers and those whose task is the development of granular precepts to guide implementation and execution of policy on the ground.

Patrick Paterson, , , , , , , 2021external-pubspatrick-patersoncriminal-law human-rights international-humanitarian-law rule-of-lawbrazil colombia haiti mexico united-statesenglish
21st Century Military Justice Systems in the Western Hemisphere – Webinar Outtakes (5 August 2020)
[No Summary Available]

William Godnick, 2021proceedings-2william-godnickcivil-military-relationship rule-of-lawlatin-americaspanish
3rd Annual Security Challenges in Latin America Forum: Panel I
[Click for Summary]

The Latin American Studies Program at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) and the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies host the third annual Latin American Security Forum titled, “Latin America in the World Order: Stepping Up.” During the full-day event, subject matter experts from the US and Latin America will analyze current events and address the following issues: Regional and health security, great power competition within the region, and energy development.

Brian Fonseca, Ciro Ugarte, Craig Deare, Cynthia McClintock, Fabiana Perera, Francisco Monaldi, Javier Corrales, Juan Carlos Pinzón, Lisa Viscidi, Mónica Baumgarten de Bolle, Paul Angelo, , , , , , , 2021video-hemispheric-forumbrian-fonseca ciro-ugarte craig-deare cynthia-mcclintock fabiana-perera francisco-monaldi javier-corrales juan-carlos-pinzon lisa-viscidi monica-baumgarten-de-bolle paul-angelogreat-power-competition health securitycaribbean central-america latin-america north-america south-america united-statesenglish
3rd Annual Security Challenges in Latin America Forum: Panel II
[Click for Summary]

The Latin American Studies Program at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) and the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies host the third annual Latin American Security Forum titled, “Latin America in the World Order: Stepping Up.” During the full-day event, subject matter experts from the US and Latin America will analyze current events and address the following issues: Regional and health security, great power competition within the region, and energy development.

Brian Fonseca, Ciro Ugarte, Craig Deare, Cynthia McClintock, Fabiana Perera, Francisco Monaldi, Javier Corrales, Juan Carlos Pinzón, Lisa Viscidi, Mónica Baumgarten de Bolle, Paul Angelo, , , , , , , 2021video-hemispheric-forumbrian-fonseca ciro-ugarte craig-deare cynthia-mcclintock fabiana-perera francisco-monaldi javier-corrales juan-carlos-pinzon lisa-viscidi monica-baumgarten-de-bolle paul-angelogreat-power-competition health securitycaribbean central-america latin-america north-america south-america united-statesenglish
3rd Annual Security Challenges in Latin America Forum: Panel III
[Click for Summary]

The Latin American Studies Program at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) and the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies host the third annual Latin American Security Forum titled, “Latin America in the World Order: Stepping Up.” During the full-day event, subject matter experts from the US and Latin America will analyze current events and address the following issues: Regional and health security, great power competition within the region, and energy development.

Brian Fonseca, Ciro Ugarte, Craig Deare, Cynthia McClintock, Fabiana Perera, Francisco Monaldi, Javier Corrales, Juan Carlos Pinzón, Lisa Viscidi, Mónica Baumgarten de Bolle, Paul Angelo, , , , , , , 2021video-hemispheric-forumbrian-fonseca ciro-ugarte craig-deare cynthia-mcclintock fabiana-perera francisco-monaldi javier-corrales juan-carlos-pinzon lisa-viscidi monica-baumgarten-de-bolle paul-angelogreat-power-competition health securitycaribbean central-america latin-america north-america south-america united-statesenglish
3rd Annual Security Challenges in Latin America Forum: Panel IV
[Click for Summary]

The Latin American Studies Program at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) and the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies host the third annual Latin American Security Forum titled, “Latin America in the World Order: Stepping Up.” During the full-day event, subject matter experts from the US and Latin America will analyze current events and address the following issues: Regional and health security, great power competition within the region, and energy development.

Brian Fonseca, Ciro Ugarte, Craig Deare, Cynthia McClintock, Fabiana Perera, Francisco Monaldi, Javier Corrales, Juan Carlos Pinzón, Lisa Viscidi, Mónica Baumgarten de Bolle, Paul Angelo, , , , , , , 2021video-hemispheric-forumbrian-fonseca ciro-ugarte craig-deare cynthia-mcclintock fabiana-perera francisco-monaldi javier-corrales juan-carlos-pinzon lisa-viscidi monica-baumgarten-de-bolle paul-angelogreat-power-competition health securitycaribbean central-america latin-america north-america south-america united-statesenglish
3rd Annual Security Challenges in Latin America Forum: Keynote Address
[Click for Summary]

The Latin American Studies Program at Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) and the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies host the third annual Latin American Security Forum titled, “Latin America in the World Order: Stepping Up.” During the full-day event, subject matter experts from the US and Latin America will analyze current events and address the following issues: Regional and health security, great power competition within the region, and energy development.

Brian Fonseca, Ciro Ugarte, Craig Deare, Cynthia McClintock, Fabiana Perera, Francisco Monaldi, Javier Corrales, Juan Carlos Pinzón, Lisa Viscidi, Mónica Baumgarten de Bolle, Paul Angelo, , , , , , , 2021video-hemispheric-forumbrian-fonseca ciro-ugarte craig-deare cynthia-mcclintock fabiana-perera francisco-monaldi javier-corrales juan-carlos-pinzon lisa-viscidi monica-baumgarten-de-bolle paul-angelogreat-power-competition health securitycaribbean central-america latin-america north-america south-america united-statesenglish
Facing Transnational Threats in Central America
[Click for Summary]

Selected speakers from the seminar “Cooperación para Enfrentar los Retos Transnacionales a la Seguridad y Defensa en Centroamérica”

Ángela Sosa, Édgar Soto, Jaqueline Quintanilla, 2021video-webinarangela-sosa edgar-soto jaqueline-quintanillatransnational-organized-crime transnational-threatscentral-americaspanish
Security Challenges in the Caribbean in the Age of COVID: 2021 and Beyond
[No Summary Available]

Ivelaw Lloyd Griffith, Sheridon Hill, , , 2021video-webinarivelaw-lloyd-griffith sheridon-hillcovid health transnational-threatscaribbean trinidad-tobagoenglish
A New Path Uphill
[No Summary Available]

Celina Realuyo, , , 2021external-pubscelina-realuyodrug-trafficking transnational-organized-crime transnational-threatsmexico united-statesenglish
Regional Security and Defense: The Next Decade
[No Summary Available]

José Robles Montoya, Juan Pablo Toro, , , 2021video-webinarjose-robles-montoya juan-pablo-torocentral-america latin-america north-america south-americaspanish
Alumni Spotlights 2020
[Click for Summary]

The Alumni Spotlights magazine is an annual publication which highlights the experiences and achievements of alumni of the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and demonstrates the exceptional impact its alumni are making around the world. Individual spotlights are also featured on our web site and social media pages.

WJPC Alumni Office, 2020alumni-outreachwjpc-alumni-officeenglish spanish
The Threat of the Criminal Group Primer Comando do Capital (PCC) to the Security of Brazil: An Update
[No Summary Available]

Leonardo Coutinho, Raúl Jungmann, , 2020video-webinarleonardo-coutinho raul-jungmannarmed-groups gangs organized-crimebrazilspanish
FARC During the Peace Process
[No Summary Available]

Mark Wilson, , , 2020occasional-papermark-wilsonarmed-groups farc illicit-economies post-conflict-resolutioncolombiaenglish
The Crisis of Regional Integration and Defense Cooperation in South America
[No Summary Available]

Jorge Riquelme, , , , , , 2020occasional-paperjorge-riquelmeinternational-accords-treaties international-organizationsandean-region argentina brazil chile south-america southern-conespanish
Dynamics of the Autonomous Mapuche Movements in Chile and Argentina
[No Summary Available]

Fabián Calle, Patricio Navia, 2020video-webinarfabian-calle patricio-naviaindigenous-issuesargentina chilespanish
Conference of Defense Ministers of the Americas: What Has Happened and What Can We Expect?
[No Summary Available]

Andrés Villar Gertner, Frank Cabrera Rizek, Kidd Manville, , , , 2020video-webinarandres-villar-gertner frank-cabrera-rizek kidd-manvillediplomacy international-relations security-cooperationcentral-america north-america south-americaspanish
Panel Discussion: Homeland Defense is a Global Endeavor
[No Summary Available]

Dan L. Cheever, Raymundo Pedro Morales Angeles, S. T. Boyle2020video-otherdan-l-cheever raymundo-pedro-morales-angeles s-t-boylespanish
Panel Discussion: Homeland Defense is a Global Endeavor
[No Summary Available]

Dan L. Cheever, Raymundo Pedro Morales Angeles, S. T. Boyle2020video-otherdan-l-cheever raymundo-pedro-morales-angeles s-t-boyleenglish
Disaster Risk Resilience: Climate and Security in the Caribbean
[No Summary Available]

Anthony Clayton, , 2020video-webinaranthony-claytonclimate-change humanitarian-aid natural-disasterscaribbeanenglish
Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: WPS in the Western Hemisphere – Foreword
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Craig S. Faller, Frederick S. Rudesheim, , , 2020other-pubscraig-s-faller frederick-s-rudesheimarmed-forces gender military peacekeeping-operationswestern-hemisphereenglish
Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: WPS in the Western Hemisphere – Introduction
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Fabiana Perera2020other-pubsfabiana-pereragenderlatin-americaenglish
The Impact of COVID-19 on the Economy, Security and Transnational Organized Crime in the Americas
[No Summary Available]

Celina Realuyo, , 2020regional-insightscelina-realuyocovid organized-crimelatin-americaenglish spanish
Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: WPS in the Western Hemisphere – Conclusion
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Jean Manes, 2020other-pubsjean-manesgender wpswestern-hemisphereenglish
The Important Contribution of Military Women in Peace and Security
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Rosario Rodríguez, , , , 2020other-pubsrosario-rodriguezgender international-organizations peacekeeping-operations wpsuruguayenglish spanish
The Few, The Proud, The Female Marines
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Serena Simeoli, , 2020other-pubsserena-simeoligender maritime-issuesunited-statesenglish spanish
Tracing the Integration of Women into the Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Daryl Dindial, Kemba Hannays, , 2020other-pubsdaryl-dindial kemba-hannaysdefense-governance gendertrinidad-tobagoenglish spanish
Female Army Personnel in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Karina Lazo, , , , 2020other-pubskarina-lazogender peacekeeping-operations wpsafrica peruenglish spanish
Experiences and Challenges of Women in Peacekeeping Missions
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Lourdes Barriga, , , , 2020other-pubslourdes-barrigagender peacekeeping-operations wpsafrica peruenglish spanish
The Evolution of Women’s Participation in the Secretariat of the Mexican Navy
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To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Patricia Baranda Carmona, , , , 2020other-pubspatricia-baranda-carmonadefense-governance gender international-accords-treaties navymexicoenglish spanish
An Ambitious Perspective of Women’s Contributions to Honduran Military Operations
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Perla Waleska Flores, , 2020other-pubsperla-waleska-floresdefense-governance genderhondurasenglish spanish
Women’s Experience and Leadership in the National Security System
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Sara Alonzo, , 2020other-pubssara-alonzodefense-governance genderguatemalaenglish spanish
Ecuador’s Implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Malenny Cristina Zaldumbide Espinoza, , , , 2020other-pubsmalenny-cristina-zaldumbide-espinozaarmed-forces defense-governance gender international-accords-treatiesecuadorenglish spanish
Many Girls, Surely They’ll Be Military
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Daniela Medina Escudero, Diana Sanabria Salinas, , , , 2020other-pubsdaniela-medina-escudero diana-sanabria-salinasarmed-forces gender humanitarian-aid natural-disastersecuadorenglish spanish
Gender Inequality in Police Leadership: A Reality In 2020
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Marcela Ortiz Bonilla, , , 2020other-pubsmarcela-ortiz-bonillagender police wpscosta-ricaenglish spanish
The Female Researcher, a Peace Builder in Colombia
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Johanna Fernanda Navas, Paola Sierra Zamora, , , , 2020other-pubsjohanna-fernanda-navas paola-sierra-zamoraarmed-groups education-training gender violencecolombiaenglish spanish
Women Warriors
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Martha Janneth Dávila, , , , 2020other-pubsmartha-janneth-davilademocracy external-actors gender indigenous-issuescolombiaenglish spanish
Stories from Chile’s Investigation Police – PDI
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Christian Serón Leal, María Paz Aguilera, , , 2020other-pubschristian-seron-leal maria-paz-aguileradrug-trafficking gender policechileenglish spanish
Assessing United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 From an Academic Perspective
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Daniela Sepúlveda, Pablo Rivas Pardo, , , , 2020other-pubsdaniela-sepulveda pablo-rivas-pardodefense-governance education-training gender international-organizationschileenglish spanish
Women in Security and Defense: 20 Years After the Adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1325
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Carolina Sancho Hirane, , , , , 2020other-pubscarolina-sancho-hiraneeducation-training gender international-accords-treaties international-organizationschile latin-americaenglish spanish
Cybercrime and Gender Perspectives
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Beatriz da Silveira, , , , , 2020other-pubsbeatriz-da-silveiracyber gender police transnational-organized-crimebrazil latin-americaenglish portuguese
A View from the Classroom
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Sabrina Evangelista Medeiros, , , , 2020other-pubssabrina-evangelista-medeirosarmed-forces education-training genderbrazil latin-americaenglish portuguese
The South Atlantic Conflict: “Forgotten Women”
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

Alejandro Perugorría, , , , 2020other-pubsalejandro-perugorriaarmed-conflict gender post-conflict-resolutionargentina united-kingdomenglish spanish
Women in Argentina’s Armed Forces at the Forefront of the Riskiest Peacetime Missions
[Click for Summary]

To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.

María de los Angeles Gruttulini, , , , 2020other-pubsmaria-de-los-angeles-gruttuliniemergencies-crisis gender military natural-disastersargentinaenglish spanish
Disrupting the Illicit Economy that Sustains the Maduro Regime
[No Summary Available]

Celina Realuyo, , , , , 2020external-pubscelina-realuyochavez-maduro drug-trafficking illicit-economies natural-resourcesvenezuelaenglish portuguese spanish
The Return of the Generals? Civil-Military Relations in Latin America at Times of Pandemic
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The recent warnings from politicians and academics about the re-emergence of Latin American military power as a threat to democracy are based on the expansion of armed missions in spheres such as the fight against drug trafficking and their role in crises such as the one that befell Bolivia. These concerns do not however reflect a reality in which armed forces have seen their resources dramatically reduced over recent decades and have come under the control of civilian governments. In reality the new role being played by the armed services has less to do with the growth in their political influence and more to do with the feeble efforts to modernise Latin America’s civilian administrations. This failure has made them a key tool for civilian governments wanting to react to a crisis, whether a public health emergency or an epidemic of crime. Under these circumstances, it is essential that the region’s governments strengthen the armed forces’ oversight and control mechanisms in order to be able to use their resources to tackle what promise to be years characterised by instability and violence in the region.

Román Ortiz, , 2020external-pubsroman-ortizcivil-military-relationship covidlatin-americaenglish spanish
Perspectives on the Brazilian Defense Strategy
[No Summary Available]

Décio Luis Schons, Fabián Calle, Luis Bitencourt, Sergio Etchegoyen, , 2020video-webinardecio-luis-schons fabian-calle luis-bitencourt sergio-etchegoyencivil-military-relationship defense-governan