On November 15, 1889, under the leadership of Army Marshall Deodoro da Fonseca, a group of Army military officers staged a coup d’état, deposed Emperor Pedro II, and turned Brazil into a republic. From that moment on, throughout the entire twentieth century, the military would become somewhat of a shadow presence in Brazil's politics. Because Brazilian military leaders were not linked to any of the forces contending for control of Brazilian politics – such as the coffee producers, the cattle creators, or traditional political clans – they influenced the political processes either indirectly as a self-defined poder moderador in the political arena or, directly, as a self-defined “guardian of democracy.” In the end, the national security establishment was competent to accomplish all its goals.

Bitencourt, Luis. "Brazil: The Evolution of Civil-Military Relations and Security" in Democracy and Security in Latin America: State Capacity and Governance under Stress, edited by Gabriel Marcella, Orlando J. Perez, and Brian Fonseca. Oxfordshire: Routledge, 2021.

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