A contemporary analysis of security and defense issues by WJPC alumni (three articles in total)
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Democratic security policy, whose original purpose is to guarantee the security of citizens and the rule of law, institutional order and the strengthening of the state, together with the guarantee of the exercise of democracy through security, has had a notable national, regional and global impact. It has placed the Colombian fight against terrorism on the international stage at many moments and several of its actions have been manifested in international scenarios. The Democratic Security Policy (DSP), implemented since 2003 by President Álvaro Uribe Vélez during his two terms in office, has become the symbol of his administration and the cornerstone of his successes. In the quest to return the country to order and bring security to the Colombian people, it has gone from being a government policy to a pillar of the Colombian State's action and has become an essential element of the Executive, to the point of being one of the common elements of continuity in the proposals of almost all the presidential candidates and of the new government, elected in June 2010.
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Brazil advanced the proposal for the South American Defense Council shortly before the summit that created UNASUR. It was approved a few months later on the occasion of another summit. The Defense Council is unprecedented in the region and challenges member states to design foreign policy together. Considering the history of security and defense arrangements in the hemisphere, Brazilian leadership in security and defense matters is an interesting new move towards regionalism. Besides the Council, during the Lula da Silva administration there have also been some other attempts at governance-building in and outside the region under Brazilian leadership. Since the theme of leadership is recurrent, especially since the military rule in Brazil, is there old wine in new bottles? Why Brazil? Why now?-these are the main research questions of this work, which also analyzes institution design and functions. Both the distinction and the connection between defense and security are explored together with an examination of both leadership and regionalism in Brazilian foreign policy and its recent move towards institution-building to deal with security and defense matters multilaterally. The paper suggests that whether the Council will be more inclined to deal with issues inside or outside the region is a key factor for the prospects of its effectiveness and endurance.
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This analysis goes into detail on the situation and reflects on three fundamental factors. The first is an abstraction regarding the new threats, and the definition, perception and impact of such on the societies involved. The second relates to the mission that the various Latin American constitutions assign to Armed Forces and police personnel. The third and last is the model adopted by the EU, and offers a critique of the Central American Framework Treaty on Security, with two extreme poles in the focus that we have undertaken. It ends with a series of conclusions that could serve for reflection or guidelines for at last characterizing the role of Latin American Armed Forces in the fight against the new threats.
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