To commemorate the 20th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325, the William J. Perry Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies and US Southern Command published an edited collection of essays, Twenty Years, Twenty Stories: Women, Peace, and Security in the Western Hemisphere, that reflect the inclusion of women across mission areas including cyber, peacekeeping, and humanitarian assistance and disaster relief. This book elevates the voices of talented women and men working in defense and security across the Western Hemisphere and highlights Perry Center alumni.
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US military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan faced a difficult challenge. The soldiers and marines needed to combat a vicious, irregular force of insurgents. At the same time, utmost care had to be taken to avoid civilian casualties. Avoiding collateral damages was easier said than done. Senior US military leaders like Admiral Mike Mullen, General Stanley McChrystal, and General David Petraeus implemented a number of doctrinal changes to avoid civilian casualties. But changing the mindset and training of US soldiers was not an overnight task, especially when restraints on the use of force put US personnel at risk.
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The essay examines the impact of military assistance on the levels of state violence against civilians during civil wars. Azam and Hoeffler argue that outside funding raises the levels of counterinsurgent brutality. This essay claims that this may be true for development assistance, but not for military aid. Using data from Peru and El Salvador, it is suggested that military aid may sometimes be inversely related to the levels of violence against civilians. This is explained by two factors. First, development aid only increases the funding of brutal regimes, whereas military assistance can also induce them to abandon brutality. Second, while traditional military aid programmes have been driven mostly by strategic concerns, those implemented in Peru and El Salvador also incorporated human rights considerations.
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This article studies from a historical perspective the Colombian participation in the Korean War between 1950 and 1954. It seeks to show some historic elements of subordination of Colombian Armed Forces respect to the representative State regarding it use of the troops in U.N. multinational operations. This text is divided in four parts. In first place, I analyze the most important aspects of the Colombian Armed Forces and your relation with the State. In second place, I show the principals' elements of the conformation of Colombian Battalion. In the third part, I study the high commitment of the Colombian troops with the UN and US military objectives. At the last part, I discuss the political and military implications of the Colombian participation in the Korean War. This text is based on military's memoirs, interviews and academic literature.
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The isolation of the Falklands-Malvinas from the American continent is a strange and awkward contradiction within the new paradigms of globalization. Moreover, the liberal civil rights enjoyed by the inhabitants of the Falklands-Malvinas Islands clashes with their legal framework of discrimination applied to outsiders, and both factors can only result in a resurgence of tension and an increase in the cost of the conflict. The goal of this presentation is to encourage a change in attitude by the parties involved in the dispute, through an analysis of the historical decision-making process and the opportunities associated with the controversy. However, a change in attitude alone is not enough for an effective solution to this territorial dispute. It requires an Argentina with reliable institutions in parallel with the United Kingdom’s political will. Finally, there are some valuable lessons we can learn from the narrative. Perhaps an early attempt to craft a solution to this dispute might be possible by taking into account the Henry Kissinger’s words of wisdom, when he stated that "a successful negotiation happens when both sides lose something."
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